“Amino acids are the building blocks for protein.”
Since a texture service can fundamentally alters the hair structure, it is important to understand what comprises the hair follicle. Hair is made of a fibrous protein called keratin. Peptide bonds also known as end bonds, are strong chemical bonds that connect amino acids. Each end bond intertwines with a side bond (also known as; hydrogen, salt and disulfide bonds) creating strength and elasticity. Because a texture service fundamentally alters the hair structure, it’s important to understand what comprises hair.
PEPTIDE BONDS (End Bonds). It is a chemical bond formed between two groups of molecules, carboxyl and amino. When one carboxyl molecule interacts with an amino molecules it releases a molecule of water (H2O).
AMINO ACIDS. A structural units… Amino acids link together to form short polymer chains called peptides. These chains are known as polypeptides or proteins.
POLYPEPTIDE/POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS. Hair is primarily formed from keratin proteins and chains of amino acid, polypeptide chains. By joining chemical bonds together, end to end with amino acids they form a polypeptide chain
KERATIN PROTEINS. Keratin is a cell of strong protective protein. It forms long, coiled polypeptide chains that create the foundation and structure of a hair strand.
This basic unit of hair is a long protein chain which forms an alpha helical secondary structure. Protein strands within hair and other alpha-keratins are cross-linked by covalent bonds between cysteine residues to form disulfide bonds. The more disulfide bonds between strands, the more rigid the protein becomes.
SIDE BONDS.The middle layer of hair is made up of millions of polypeptide chains. It is cross-linked like a ladder by the three different types of bonds listed below.
HYDROGEN BONDS.Hydrogen bonds account for the strength of the hair, and its ability to stretch and return to its original state, also known as elasticity. Hydrogen bonds are physical side bonds and are easily altered by water or heat. Although they are individually weak, they account for a third of hair’s strength.
SALT BONDS.Physical bonds are an attraction between negative and positive electric charges. pH is the potential of hydrogen in the hair, and is responsible for the balance within the body and hair. If the pH is too acidic or too alkaline, then it can break down the salt bonds. The salt bonds are able to return to normal when pH balance is neutralized.
DISULFIDE BONDS.Chemical side bonds differ greatly from physical side bonds. There are fewer chemical side bonds than physical bonds, but chemical side bonds are extremely strong. They account for one-third of hair’s overall strength. Even though disulfide bonds cannot be broken by water or a changes in your pH. They are often time broken by some form of heat such as using a flat iron, curling iron or boiling hot water. Alternating the chemical and physical changes in disulfide bonds make permanent waving, curl re-forming and chemical hair relaxing possible.
A reduction reaction involves either the removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen. In the case of permanent waving, the reduction is due to the addition of hydrogen. Once the cortex is reached, the solution breaks the disulfide bonds through this chemical reaction.
A wave wrap is similar to a wet set. The difference is that a permanent wave breaks the disulfide bonds, and permanently alters the structure of the hair, while the wet set alters the structure temporarily, with water and heat.
After shampooing a wet set, the hair returns to its original state.
The size of the rod is important when determining the desired wave pattern. A wide selection of rod sizes and shapes are available. When combined with various wrapping methods, it’s possible to achieve any wave or curl that a client desires.
Among the most commonly used rod shape, concave rods are narrow in the center and gradually widen toward the ends. This shape provides the ability to create a looser wave by wrapping the hair on the wider ends, or a tighter wave by wrapping the hair in the center.
Concave rods come in a variety of lengths and sizes.
Bendable rods can be manipulated into a variety of shapes. They are typically around 12 inches long. These rods produce a modern wave shape rather than a conventional curl.
A circle rod is just that--a rod that snaps together to form a circle. It can be used to create wave on longer hair lengths.
End papers are thin absorbent papers-commonly used to control the ends of the hair. They also prevent frizz and fishhooks, during the application of the wave solution.
End papers are used in the following ways:
Double Flat Wrap
One end paper is placed on top of the subsection of hair and another is placed on the bottom. This is the most common wrapping method, and provides maximum control.
Single Flat Wrap
A single end paper is placed over the top of a subsection of hair.
A single end paper is folded in half, allowing it to be situated on both the top and bottom of a subsection of hair. This reduces the number of end papers needed for a waving service.
The best way to section a wave is in panels. Panels can be parted into various sizes depending upon the rod size. The panels can then be divided into base sections to wrap each individual section.
Tip: Subsections are measured by the width and length of the rod
Base placement is the way the rod is placed in relation to the head. The rod angle determines base placement. Base placement can be off-base, half-base or on-base.
On-base Placement. This is achieved when the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree angle to the base section causing the rod to be positioned directly on the base. Base placement creates the most volume.
Volume is lost when the hair starts to grow out. Keep in mind that tension is created when wrapping the hair at this angle and can result in hair streaking and hair breakage.
Off-base placement. Hair is wrapped below the center part of the base section at a 45-degree angle. This technique produces the least amount of stress on the hair.
Let it curl!
"Today’s curls are modern and fresh thanks to CHI Ionic Permanent Waves.
The goal is to enhance the hair structure with volume,
waves and body to provide endless styling options for every client.”
Although there are many different wrapping techniques, it is best to wrap the hair in the direction of its natural hair growth. This will eliminate the amount of stress on the hair. Wrapping against the natural hair growth pattern may result in breakage at the base of the curl.
CHI Ionic Permanent Shine Waves are ammonia-free and utilize CHI 44 Ceramic Technology. They work from the inside out to create perfect curls, waves, body, movement and shape while maintaining optimum moisture in the hair. Results are even from root to tip, and hair emerges soft, shiny and frizz-free. CHI Ionic Permanent Shine
Waves can be used safely on color-treated or highlighted hair on the same day as a color service if CHI color or lighteners are used with 10 or 20 volume developer. Three wave formulas are available for every hair type.
Thanks to new winding techniques and new tools, stylists can control the direction and amount of texture added to hair. They can also target specific areas to enhance.
“Using CHI Magnified Volume Spray Foam as a setting lotion provides great body,
volume and support during the styling process.”
A permanent wave is a chemical hair treatment that breaks down and reforms the bonds of the hair. For this service, the hair is cleansed and wrapped on perm rods. An alkaline waving solution is then applied, which softens and swells the hair, allowing the cuticle to open and the waving solution to penetrate into the cortex. At this stage, the addition of hydrogen leads to a reductive reaction, breaking down the disulfide bonds within the cortex.