The simplest form of chemical matter is an element.
There are 90 different chemical elements that make up all of the matter within the Universe. Elements are found in their simplest form. If they were broken down any further, they would lose their identity. Each element has a custom physical and chemical property of its own. Specific letters identify each element. For example H identifies Hydrogen, O identifies Oxygen, and S identifies Sulfur, etc. The Periodic Table of Elements can be found in Chemistry textbooks or on the internet. It will list all of the elements and their symbols.
The four elements common to all living organisms are O – Oxygen, C – Carbon, H – Hydrogen, and N – Nitrogen.
The smallest chemical component of an element is an atom.
Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that retains all chemical properties.
Atoms make up and contain the same properties as elements. Atoms are categorized by the quantity of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus. This is what makes each element unique. Similar to elements, atoms cannot be made in to any simpler substance by ordinary chemical means. Atoms are composed of protons, electrons, and neutrons.
Protons carry a positive electrical charge. Electrons carry a negative electrical charge. Neutrons carry no electrical charge. Protons and neutrons together in the central part of the atom is called the nucleus and the electrons ‘orbit’ the nucleus.
A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
When you combine atoms in their fixed state, you get a molecule. For instance, when you combine H (Hydrogen) and O (Oxygen) you get water (H2O). A molecule with 2 or more atoms of the same element is considered an elemental molecule. An example of this would be atmospheric oxygen (or the air you breathe, O2). When you combine two or more atoms with different elements you get compound elements. Ammonia is an example of a compound element. Ammonia contains 1 Nitrogen atom and 3 Hydrogen atoms (NH3). Farouk Systems does not use Ammonia. In its place, we use Monoethanolamine. Monoethanolamine, also known as MEA, is an organic chemical compound and known for keeping the pH of the hair stable, unlike ammonia. For more information on CHI Ionic Color, check out Chapter 10.
As we mentioned earlier, matter can be found in 3 states: solid, liquid, or gas. These are known as states of matter. Temperature determines what state matter is found in. Water for example can exist in all 3 states: At boiling temperatures, water exists in the gas form of steam; likewise in freezing temperatures, water becomes ice, a solid form. In its standard form, water is a liquid. Though the water changes states of matter, the chemical composition of it stays the same. This change in the physical characteristics of water is also known as physical change.
|Solid||Definite shape & volume||A CHI Brush has a definite shape and volume|
|Liquid||Fixed volume, variable shape-takes shape of container|
|CHI Shampoo has a definite volume, but will take the shape of the shampoo bottle|
|Gas||Variable volume and shape- takes shape and fills container||
The propellant in the CHI Hairspray has an indefinite volume and will take the shape of any container it is in.
Physical and Chemical properties allow us to individually identify substances.
Physical properties include features such as color, size, weight, and texture. These characteristics can be determined without the use of a chemical reaction and do not involve a chemical change. When an actual chemical change and chemical reaction occur, this is the chemical property of a substance. The ability of hair to change color with the combination of CHI Ionic Color and CHI Color Generator is an example of chemical property.
Matter is changed either by a chemical change from a chemical reaction or a physical change caused by a physical force. The change in the physical properties of a substance without changing the chemical properties is called a physical change.
When CHI Organic Tone & Shine is used, this causes a physical change within the hair because there is no chemical reaction occurring. When a change occurs in the chemical structure of a substance or when a new substance is created, a chemical change occurs. The combination or subtraction of certain elements is what causes a chemical change. Oxidation is an example of a chemical change and occurs when a substance is mixed with oxygen, which produces an oxide. When CHI Ionic Hair Color is mixed with CHI Color Generator, it begins to oxidize and develop the hair color. This explains why CHI Ionic Hair Color comes out of the tube a creamy color and once CHI Color Generator is added, the mixture begins to darken.
Redox, or oxidation-reduction occurs when an oxidizing agent loses oxygen and the reducing agent gains oxygen. Oxidation reduction is a chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two species. Redox reactions can still take place without oxygen because oxidation can also occur when hydrogen is removed from a substance
Carbon dioxide is an example of a simple Redox reaction. When carbon oxidizes it creates carbon dioxide. The substance that releases oxygen is known as the oxidizing agent. Hydrogen Peroxide is a common oxidizing agent. CHI Color Generators contain hydrogen peroxide and therefor would be considered the oxidizing agent during a color service.
A substance that adds hydrogen to a compound or removes oxygen from a compound is known as a reducing agent. When CHI Color Generator is mixed with CHI Ionic Hair Color, oxygen is removed from the hydrogen peroxide in the generator and the hydrogen peroxide is reduced. In addition, oxygen is added to the CHI Ionic Color and thus the color becomes oxidized. The CHI Ionic Color in this situation is considered the reducing agent. A reduction reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs when oxygen is removed from or hydrogen is added to a substance by a chemical reaction.
The reduction reaction will always occur at the same time as the oxidation. Chemical services would not be possible without an oxidation reduction reaction.
Heat can be released by chemical reactions under some circumstances - exothermic reactions. All oxidation reactions are considered exothermic reactions but most clients usually do not feel the heat being released. When oxygen is quickly released from a substance in combination with heat and light, you get combustion. An example of this would be like lighting a match.
All matter can be classified as pure or blended. Matter in fixed proportions is considered a pure substance. Compound molecules, elemental molecules, atoms, and elements are all pure substances. Though distilled water is considered a pure substance, water from the faucet is not pure. Blended matter or physical mixture is a combination of matter in any amounts. Most of the substances that cosmetologists use exist in a blended state (or as a physical mixture).
Differences between Pure Substances and Mixtures