Various combinations of dyes create a spectrum of shades of hair colors that are used ranging from temporary color, semi-permanent, demi-permanent and permanent hair color.
Both primary intermediate dyes and couplers are oxidation dyes. Oxidation dyes are generally colorless, and are typically a low molecular weight product. Primarily they are used as a popular colorants material and form the basis of permanent, demi and semi-permanent hair dyes. The oxidation dyes have the property to cover up grey and achieve long lasting results. They give a wide array of color range that includes color enhancement, grey control and fashion colors.
Oxidation dyes falls under two categories, mainly oxidation base (primary intermediate) and coupler (secondary intermediate). For generating color using these types, it is essential to use at least one type of each and mix it with a perfect oxidant under alkaline conditions. This would ensure the best results. Oxidation dyes often depends on a solution of dye intermediates like p-phenylenediamine or toluenediamine 2, 5 for achieving the perfect colors.
Another important ingredient is hydrogen peroxide. Typically a higher volume of peroxide in the dye has been seen to give a lighter and faster result.
The primary intermediates are organic compounds that contain one or more carbon atoms and undergo a chemical reaction (oxidation) when mixed with peroxide. Oxidation dyes are primarily aromatic compounds that belong to the following three major chemical families:
The couplers are aniline and colorless until they react with the primary intermediate dye to create a shade or tone. Couplers are chemical compounds that define the color of the hair dye. There are 3 commonly used types of couplers in hair color formulations.
Whether you are learning the PH scale, solutions or products chemistry will play a huge role in how it is affected.
Having a basic understanding of chemistry will help you use the products effectively in the salon.