The type of substance, size of particle, & solubility of the substance all determine difference between a solution, a suspension, and an emulsion. A solution is a steady mixture of two or more substances. A solute is a substance that is dissolved in a liquid to create a solution. When salt is dissolved in water, salt is the solute and water is the solvent.
Solution – A mixture composed of two or more substances. A solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, is also known as a solvent.
Suspensions – A mixture that contains solid particles large for sedimentation.
Emulsions – A mixture of two or more liquids that are unmixable.
FACT: Water is considered a universal solvent. It has the ability to dissolve more substances than any other solvent. A liquid is considered either miscible (a liquid that can be mixed together to form stable solutions) or immiscible (a liquid that is not capable of forming a stable solution when mixed). When water and alcohol are mixed, they are considered miscible as they will stay mixed together to form a solution and will not separate. When water is mixed with oil, the mixture is considered immiscible. If left still, the ingredients will begin to separate. Immiscible liquids are combined to form suspensions.
An unstable liquid physical mixture with undissolved particles is considered a suspension. Suspensions contain larger particles that are generally visible to the naked eye and usually harder to mix together. Suspensions are unstable and separate over time
FAQ: CHI Color Generator is considered an immiscible substance. It is recommended to shake your developer prior to each color application to ensure that all of the ingredients are well mixed. Over time certain ingredients can separate within the developer
Two immiscible solutions can become a fairly stable blend by the use of an emulsifier. When two unstable solutions are bound together with the use of an emulsifier, an emulsion is formed. Though both solutions are considered somewhat stable, they will still separate over a long period of time at a slower rate than a suspension. If an emulsion is properly stored at the correct temperature it is possible for the substances to maintain a stable state for at least 3 years.
Surfactants are substances that act as a link to allow oil & water to mix. A surfactant molecule has a head (hydrophilic) and a tail (lipophilic). Hydrophilic means water loving and will attach to the water. Lipophilic means oil loving and will attach to the oil. Like dissolves like, so in this case, the hydrophilic head dissolves the water and the lipophilic tail dissolves the oil and thus temporarily joins the water and oil together to form an emulsion. When oil is added to water, the surfactant’s lipophilic tail will point inwards towards the oil and the hydrophilic head will point out. This is known as an oil-in-water emulsion. When water is added to oil, the surfactant’s lipophilic tail will point out and the hydrophilic head will point in towards the water. This is known as a water-in-oil emulsion. A water-in-oil emulsion will have a greasier feel because the water particles are hidden and surrounded by oil.
Powders, such as the CHI Blondest Blonde Powder Lightener & Sunglitz Lighteners, are physical mixtures of one or more types of solids. They may separate during shipping and storage and should always be shaken prior to each use.
There are thousands of ingredients used to create the broad spectrum of everyday salon use products and cosmetologists come in contact with these ingredients on a daily basis. Some of the more notable ingredients include:
Ammonia: Ammonia is a colorless gas with a very strong odor. It is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen as is used to raise the pH level of the hair in order to allow products to penetrate the cuticle. Ammonia dissolves in water to give alkaline solution.
Alkanolamines: An alkanolamine is a substance often used in place of ammonia. It raises the cuticle similar to ammonia but produces fewer odors. Farouk Systems does not use Ammonia in any of the products.
Monoethanolamine is used in place of ammonia within the CHI Ionic Hair Color. Monoethanolamine (or MEA for short) performs the same functions as ammonia; however it keeps the pH levels of the hair stable which leads to healthier hair. MEA also, unlike ammonia, does not release harsh gasses when mixed with hydrogen peroxide (or developer).
FACT: Did you know that the Sunglitz Lightening Systems was the first non-ammonia lightening system ever created? Its creation was due to Farouk Shami developing an allergy to ammonia. Because of his dedication to the industry, he wanted to create a safer working environment not only for his fellow artists, but for the client as well.
Thus the Ammonia Free Sunglitz Lightening System was born and has set a new trend of safer products across the hairstyling industry.
Glycerin is a colorless, oily substance used in hair products, skin, and body creams to help lock in the moisture.
Silicones provide shine to the hair and a soft smooth feeling to the skin. They are typically liquid at room temperature and oily in their consistency. They are most often insoluble in water but can be modified sometimes with ethylene glycol groups or other atoms to become water-soluble.
Volatile organic compounds or VOCs are compounds that contain carbon and evaporate easily. They emit as gases from certain solids or liquids. They include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short or long term health effects. VOCs are emitted through products such as cleaning supplies, permanent markers, paint strippers, nail polish and hairsprays. The common VOC used in hairspray is SD alcohol or ethyl alcohol.
pH Potential Hydrogen pH is a measurement of the acidy or basicity of an aqueous solution. A solution with a pH higher than 7 is considered alkaline (or basic). A solution with a pH less than 7 is considered acidic. Pure water has a pH close to 7 (neutral). Understanding pH and how it affects the hair, skin, and nails is vital to understanding all salon services.
Any substance with a pH less than 7 is considered an acid. Acids attribute their chemical reactivity to the hydrogen ion. Acids are used in salons to help exfoliate skin and adjust the pH of a lotion of cream. These are known as alpha hydroxyl acids and are derived from plants. Thioglycolic acid is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant strong smell that is used in permanent waving solutions such as CHI Waves.
The hydroxide ions create the chemical reaction in alkalis. Alkalis have a pH above a 7 and feels slippery to touch. Alkalis neutralizes with acids and turns litmus blue. When placed on the skin or hair, alkalis can cause a swelling reaction. Lye is a very strong alkali that can be found in chemical hair relaxers such as the CHI Deep Brilliance. It is very important to use these products in accordance with Farouk Systems’ directions and that you do not let these products touch or sit on the skin as they may cause injury to or a burning sensation on the skin. Sodium hydroxide products may be especially dangerous if they get into the eyes, so always wear safety glasses to avoid eye contact.
Consult the product’s MSDS for more specific information on safe use.
When acids and alkalis are mixed together in equal proportions, they neutralize each other and form water. An acid-alkali reaction occurs when a neutralizer such as the CHI Deep Brilliance Balance Instant Neutralizing
Shampoo is applied following a CHI Deep Brilliance Relaxer. Similarly, the same reaction occurs when the CHI Quick Smooth Cream Neutralizer is applied following a CHI Quick Smooth service.